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LAGI 2014

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“An hourglass to remind us…that as long as we take care of our environment, the energy will never run out.”
-Santiago Muros Cortés

The Solar Hourglass
First Place winner to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist: Santiago Muros Cortés
Artist Location: Buenos Aires, Argentina
Energy Technologies: concentrated solar power (thermal beam-down tower with heliostats)
See bottom of this post for more information about the MASDAR precedent for this technology.
Annual Capacity: 6,000 MWh

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Rather than using sand to measure time, the Solar Hourglass uses the power of the sun to electrify hundreds of homes while providing a breathtaking setting for inspiration and relaxation. The installation consists of an upper and a lower bulb. Dozens of people can gather on the bottom bulb during the day, sheltered by the shade of the top bulb.

The project works as a solar central receiver, consisting of an arrangement of small flat mirrors that concentrate their reflection of solar energy on a tank holding a heating medium. Sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) on top of the upper bulb reflect solar heat onto a cone-shaped set of smaller mirrors that concentrate these reflections and direct them down the neck of the installation.

The concentrated beam of solar heat then reaches a receiver containing heat transfer fluid (HTF) of molten nitrate salt, which is heated to temperatures over 600°C. The HTF is conveyed through a heat exchanger where water is turned into steam to run a turbine generator. A small percentage of the steam produced is released back into the neck of the hourglass, thus making the solar beam visible to the public.

The higher heat capacity of the molten salt allows for the system to store heat and produce energy during cloudy weather or even at night.

All the energy production and transformation components are hidden inside the bottom bulb and inaccessible to the general public, making it safe for public engagement.

At night, the beam turns off, and the thin layer of OLED (organic light-emitting diode) that covers the installation, lights up on the surface of both bulbs, transforming the hourglass into a pair of elegantly curved planes that shine on the edge of Refshaleøen.

The Solar Hourglass reminds us that energy is just as precious and fleeting as time, and thus we should take care of it, appreciate it, and not waste it. The project aims to send an optimistic message to those who visit: we still have time to make things right with the environment, and if we act now, it is not yet too late.



More about the technology: The solar thermal beam-down tower technology has been prototyped and tested by Masdar in Abu Dhabi.

It’s an advancement in concentrated solar power (CSP) tower technology, which collects the sun’s energy over a wide surface area and focuses it onto a single point by using sun-tracking mirrors. In conventional CSP towers, the collector is located at the top of the tower. Water is pumped up and through the collector to generate steam. In beam-down towers, the sunlight is reflected twice, once at the ground and again at the top of the tower. This allows the collector to be located at ground level, which does not require the water to be pumped and has the potential to provide a more efficient overall system. This PopSci article has a good overview of the installation at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, and if you’re really interested in getting into the details, you can read Marwan Mokhtar and his colleagues’ paper on the performance of the system, which is published online at MIT.

What Santiago Muros Cortés has done with this latest CSP technology by incorporating it into such an elegant formal expression and symbol for our times is a kind of three-dimensional poetry. We hope that we can help to make his vision into a reality.

Note: This article was edited on October 13 to make some corrections to the energy calculation. Thanks to a friend at ABB for pointing out some inaccuracies in the figures previously stated. For those who are interested, please find below a summary of revised assumptions.

1. 50 m diameter area of heliostats = 1,963 square meters of surface area
2. maximum irradiance per square meter is 1,366 watts (0.001366 MW) = 2.682 MW of potential power falling within the area (0.001366 x 1,963)
3. 85% of the maximum irradiance can be expected at the site, which takes the power to 2.28 MW of potential power. This can be considered the peak or nameplate capacity of the installation (2.28 MWp)
4. A capacity factor of 32% has been presented as an assumption (in Denmark this could be an optimistic number and please see #6 below).
5. Running the estimate for a typical year is as follows: 2.28MWp x 365 days x 24 hours x 0.32 capacity factor = 6,391 MWh per year
6. The original estimate for the artwork’s annual capacity was slightly overestimated at 7,500 MWh. We have revised this number to 6,000 MWh (rounding down from 6,391 MWh). In the original article there was also the misstatement that the capacity was 6.2 MWp rather than 2.28 MWp. Additionally, imperfections in the mirrors, efficiency of the turbine, and other factors would also certainly affect the overall performance of the system, but we do not have the information needed at the concept level of design to incorporate these factors. As this is a concept proposal and the dimensional details are all subject to change, we appreciate your indulgence in the imperfection of the estimate of annual output. This applies to all LAGI design competition proposals.
7. The Land Art Generator Initiative does its best to check the accuracy of stated output numbers. It is important to note that the estimated output is just one of many criteria that are used by the jury when selecting the winning design. The complete list is as follows:

  • Adherence to the Design Guidelines and Submission Requirements;
  • The integration of the work into the surrounding environment and landscape;
  • The sensitivity of the work to the environment, and to local, and regional ecosystems;
  • The estimated amount of clean energy that can be produced by the work;
  • The way in which the work engages the public;
  • The embodied energy required to construct the work;
  • The perceived return on capital investment of the work;
  • Consideration of additional sustainable infrastructural benefits of the work besides energy production;
  • The originality and social relevance of the concept.

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Quiver

Quiver
2nd Place Winner to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Mateusz Góra, Agata Gryszkiewicz
Artist Location: Warsaw, Poland
Energy Technologies: biofuel, aeroelastic flutter (Windbelt™)
Annual Capacity: 550 MWh (223 MWh bio, 327 MWh Windbelt™)

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Quiver has two main elements: the garden and the tower.

The garden is a field of Miscanthus grass-energy crops that grows a maximum of four meters tall and can be harvested twice a year. Changing planting schemes offers diverse functional patterns and spaces for citizens and visitors. The grass grows well in blighted soils, assisting in their remediation over time by accumulating pollutants into its root systems.

At the far end of the park is the tower—a landmark that welcomes boats arriving to the city. The footbridge brings visitors to the top of the installation and to an expansive view of Copenhagen. As the Windbelts™ flutter in the wind, the panorama, while moving towards the top, is in continuous dynamic flux.

During the night, the tower has another active role, calling to mind a lighthouse. LED lighting reflects a visual representation of the current wind conditions in Copenhagen.

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eMotions: Energy Motions and Art Emotions
3rd Place Winner to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Antonio Maccà, Flavio Masi
Artist Location: Padova, Italy
Energy Technologies: photovoltaic panels, micro-scale vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) and horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT), stacked ceramic multilayer actuators, piezoelectric wind energy systems
Annual Capacity: 2,000 MWh

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eMotions showcases artistic interpretations of disparate Danish ecosystems, each varying in materials, energy technologies, dimensions, and textures. The installation places on display Denmark’s biodiversity while engaging different communities within the city.

The artwork is also meant to evoke the image of a large generator, its viewing loop representing the generator’s “belt” and the infinite production of clean energy through its micro-scale generators. The generators are listed below, each representing a type of ecosystem.

1. River is the public connecting loop with a piezoelectric floor made up of stacked, ceramic, multilayer actuators (SCMA). The actuators absorb energy from the movement of the people and convert it into electricity.

2. Beach is the harbor bath with a wooden amphitheater, realizing the transition from land to water as a terraced landscape where people can relax and reach the sea. The circles on the facade of the generator symbolize the beach waves and integrate horizontal axis wind turbines, varying in dimensions depending on the internal diameters.

3. Marine houses many activities, such as swimming, scuba diving and kayaking. The intersecting pattern of sinusoids symbolize the overlapping sea waves and integrate vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT).


4. Sand Dune represents the aeolian sediment transport of the migrating sand dunes. Its facade is composed of thin-film semitransparent photovoltaic panels and horizontal-axis wind turbines.

5. Lake draws its inspiration from the superimposition of waves onto the still surface of a lake. The structure supports semitransparent photovoltaic panels, which enclose a water playground.

6. Agricultural is made up of semitransparent photovoltaic panels that evoke the rotational, open-field production of agricultural crops. This “urban agriculture” garden showcases the biodiversity of plant life in Denmark, bringing knowledge of the country’s varied foods and plants to the public.

7. Arctic calls to mind a snowfall in a typical frozen arctic landscape and hosts an outdoor ice skating rink during winter. The floating snowflakes are oscillating piezoelectric energy systems, converting wind-induced vibrations into electrical power.

8. Grassland is composed of piezoelectric energy systems moved by the wind. The green area offers recreational open grassland for sports activities.

9. Forest is symbolized by a pattern of overlapping tree silhouettes that support vertical axis wind turbines.

10. Urban hosts a renewable energy museum showcasing a history of sustainable energy research and incorporates round microcrystalline photovoltaic panels of different diameters.

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THE KYST

THE KYST
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Janka Paulovics, Annika Janthur
Artist Location: : Berlin, Germany
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric discs and fibers

THE KYST is positioned between the poles of the natural, technical, and cultural history of the site, and the visionary all-encompassing and sustainable impetus of Copenhagen.

The form of the installation is inspired by the “phragmites” or reeds that are a very common part of Denmark’s coastal flora. Just like a field of reeds in a natural setting, THE KYST Energy Park consists of many densely placed stems in a wide swath along the water’s edge. They draw energy from their surroundings: the wind, the sea, the rain, and from their interaction with humans. Scaling the stems up to the size of a tree places the visitor in a fairy-tale environment, like Alice in Wonderland.

THE KYST consists of 1400 single stems that merge into a sculptural landscape installation. The installation occupies the water and the land at the same time, placing one-third of the stems in water and two-thirds on land. Concentrating the stems at the edge will have the effect of an iridescent installation with a moiré of alternating views as the beholder approaches the site.

As an ode to nature and a calligraphic element, the stems have leaf-like structures added to the stems to harvest energy as they move with the wind, water, or rain. Even more importantly, the leaves enable and encourage human interaction with visitors.

Piezoelectric Fiber Composites (PFCs) are placed inside the hollow structure of the stems to collect the energy from the leaves and swaying stems. The highest output can be generated when the stems catch their own resonance frequency and vibrate like a flagpole in the wind.

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Ripple

Ripple
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Junfeng Wang, Qiyao Li
Artist Location: New York City, USA
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric generators
Annual Capacity: 5,000 MWh

Bridging from water to sky, Ripple settles on a curved surface creating a harmonious conversation between two parallel worlds. It embodies a rhythmic, unitized shape inspired by the form of water, generating electricity by harvesting kinetic energy.

The light, aluminum panels reflecting the surrounding colors of the sky and water blend into the environment, flickering in the wind or resting in stasis. The process of energy production is displayed as a pleasant experience for visitors, blurring the line between the artificial and the natural.

Ripple employs natural power as well as human engagement as its kinetic power source onsite. Movements in the surrounding environment—prevailing wind, birds’ intermittent resting, people walking, or activities above the panel—trigger the panel’s vibration, which is passed down to piezoelectric generator cells. The spring at the bottom of each rod helps to regulate the vibration cycle and confine the movement of panels, on which visitors can walk.

Specific panel installation and material varies slightly depending on the energy input. Side-wind panels are mainly located at the area close to the water frontage and are placed parallel to the ground plane. They are driven by wind power coming from the side of almost all directions. Front-wind triggered panels take advantage of prevailing wind from the southwest. Flat panels define the common pedestrian flow path on site, which is distributed around the entrance and connects to the water taxi terminal. Flexible event panels have various degrees of curvature for mixed uses.

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Zephyrus Park

Zephyrus Park
A submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Mike Sollenberger
Artist Location: Philadelphia (PA), USA
Energy Technologies: wind turbines within acceleration vaults
Annual Capacity: 250 MWh

Zephyrus Park harnesses the power of available wind that blows across the harbor of Copenhagen. Wind vector and sun angles form vaults that funnel wind into an array of wind turbines, amplifying wind speed, and increasing the efficiency with which each turbine produces energy for the city of Copenhagen. On the surface, a park provides community space along with semi-private areas created with the topography.

The vaults are set up to collect wind as much as possible throughout the year. The five intake vaults are positioned to take advantage of the abundant west wind. The funnels significantly increase the wind speed so that each turbine produces much more energy, allowing for a lower number of turbines.

The connection between surface and interior is made at the harbor bus dock, which allows a view deep into the vaults to see the turbines at work. This will be the most heavily accessed entry to the site and so will give users an idea of what is happening below as they inhabit the park above.

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The By-Cycle

The By-Cycle
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Kenneth Ip, Joey Yim
Artist Location: Hong Kong
Energy Technologies: wind microturbines from repurposed bicycle rims

A well-known and widely discussed feature of Copenhagen’s sustainable development is its bicycle infrastructure. Over one third of people living in Copenhagen commute to work or school by bicycle, and bicycle ownership in the city is upwards of 90%.

Bicycles produce no pollutants when they are being peddled around the city, but what becomes of the bicycle when it has passed its usable lifespan? And what becomes of the abandoned bicycles that amount to approximately 13,000 each year?

What if old and abandoned bicycles were reintroduced back into the sustainable ecosystem of Copenhagen? Although they may no longer be suitable to be used on the road again, their basic framework and structure allows them to be recycled for another purpose. Instead of disposing of them as waste, these bicycles could be transformed into a meaningful part of Copenhagen’s ambitious plan to be carbon neutral by 2025.

THE BY-CYCLE transforms old bicycles into a wind farm, harnessing the natural resources of the city while making use of what would otherwise be wasted resources. The bicycle is deconstructed into its basic elements—its frame and its rims—and the individual parts are reassembled into a tree-like structure. Each rim is then fitted with polycarbonate fins to catch the wind, thus allowing the disused bicycle to be readapted as a windmill. Waste becomes useful again.

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Windshape

Windshape
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Manon Robert, Martin Le Carboulec, Marc Antoine Galup
Artist Location: Seoul, South Korea
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric fabric, rotating electromagnetic generators

Wind speed is transformed into energy with Windshape. The 302 poles, each supporting several piezoelectric textile banners, reshape and transform the site according to the natural wind direction.

As the wind can come from any direction and change quickly, the site will never look the same from one visit to the next. To engage the public in the process, the dimensions of each sail panel are imagined at human scale. Visitors will enjoy getting lost in the changing spaces and observing others as they pass between the sails.

Some sails are intentionally fixed in order to create a passage through the site to the entrance and water taxi terminal. The others are completely free, but can be temporarily fixed by users who would like to modulate the space. These outdoor rooms created by the sail rotations can be both intimate and public.

Several factors inform the design of the sail. The main inspiration was a study of windsurfing sails and their fabrication. A succession of different types of layers on the surface of the sails (aramid fiber scrim and mylar protection) provides tensile strength and protects the piezoelectric fabric layer.

The fabric provides an estimated output power density in the range of 1.10–5.10_W /cm2 at applied wind pressures in the range of 0.02–0.10 MPa. In addition, the dynamo system at the base converts rotational energy with an estimated peak output power of 3.5W. LED lights located in the poles softly illuminate the area at night, making it visible from the opposite shore as a reminder of the power of Copenhagen wind.

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Lightfoam

Lightfoam
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: ByungEon Song, SooHyun Kang, John Song
Artist Location: : Seoul, South Korea
Energy Technologies: : Piezoelectric Disks

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Long poles standing on artificial wind slopes continually move like a field of reeds according to the direction of wind. Daylight reflections and dim lighting at night invite visitors to imagine a scene from the Little Mermaid.

Lightfoam is an array of 2,400 polished, white bending poles that harvest the energy of the wind with piezoelectric generators. The 20-meter high poles naturally respond to any change in wind direction. Each is embedded with stacks of piezoelectric discs set between rigid backup plates. To increase the intensity of wind, these piezoelectric structures protrude through a platform shaped to form a valley. The framework of poles is free to bend and respond to all forces, such as wind or people. The more they bend, the more electricity they generate.

At night, LED light sources inside each pole allow the structure to glow or dim depending on the amount of energy they generate. As the wind moves, the fiber rods softly sway to create a dynamic effect and memorable scenery.

The site is transformed into a public park where children can shift or climb between poles, people can ride bicycles, or walk alone along vantage points on the slope. As they are enjoying the park, their activities generate additional energy through the poles and pavements.

As families come together on the playground, this active and energetic atmosphere will influence the surrounding island.

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The Place of Tomorrow // Aesthetic Representation of Copenhagen’s Future Plan
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Amir Shouri, Fereshteh Tabe
Artist Location: New York City, USA
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric fabric, piezoelectric discs

The Place of Tomorrow is a new type of public garden—a poetic, natural space that demonstrates the future of clean energy.

Oscillating textures of fabric shades are framed in homage to Copenhagen’s future energy-plan. As they wave in the wind, the shades make visible the wind’s forces and aesthetically display the real-time production of electrical energy.

As a reflection of the 8,000 workers who once worked in the Sønder Hoved shipyard, the garden is designed under 8,000 linear fabric shades of different lengths. The energy fabric dances freely in the air, while below park visitors enjoy swimming in the clear blue water. Bicyclers move between lounging couples, enjoying the rippling effects of the sun through the fabric above.

The longer fabric shades produce more electricity and are representative of the future (when most of Denmark’s electricity will be produced by wind), and the shorter shades represent the early 21st century (when only 22% of electricity was produced by wind). Overall, 8,000 pieces of electricity-generating fabric benefit from the movement of electrons in nanowires to produce enough energy to power the LED lights of the project and to offset 900 households on a windy day.

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Windbrator

Windbrator
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Chanin Sheeranangsu, Pattra Wongsantimeth
Artist Location: Bangkok, Thailand
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric ceramic discs

Windbrator is a work of land art for the regenerative metropolis, providing electricity to the city through the natural force of wind. The key is to generate renewable energy from the vibrations caused by the infinite, yet ever changing, supply of wind.

Kinetic force is captured and turned to electric power by the use of piezoelectric ceramic discs that are arrayed around 220,000 piezoballs—the primary module of the artwork. The structural housing consists of 552 sectional 3-meter square quadrate poles that vary in height from 15–35 meters.

The towers are arranged in a plan to reflect the prevailing wind direction at the site throughout the four seasons. At the center is a serene and monumental public gathering space.

Piezoballs—each 30 centimeters in diameter with a transparent outer skin—adorn the top 10 meters of each pole to harvest electric power. Vibration sensors light up LEDs that function as a seasonal calendar as well as a nighttime spectacle.

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Driven by the Wind, towards a green horizon
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Guido Zeck, Ingrid Ackermans, Peter Twisk
Artist Location: Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Energy Technologies: UGE VisionAIR3™ vertical axis wind turbines

The form of Driven by the Wind is based on the shape of the Sealandia, the first large diesel ship in the world that was built on the site of Burmeister & Wain at Refshaleøen. The design is a reference to the site’s history and a symbol of the path to new horizons.

Its composition of vertical axis wind turbines creates a soft moiré pattern that offers a beautiful fairy-tale background for the Little Mermaid. The dense pattern of turbines allows for a greater efficiency of power production as the turbine rotation is augmented by wind vortices created by the adjacent units. The wind-ship “sails” forward to a green horizon and a clean energy future.

An ecological park is incorporated into the design, with a riverbank rich in biodiversity. The rough vegetation and trees provide an attractive public space, and the ecological design contributes to the spatial experience of the area as a whole.

The ship uses a space frame structure, which supports 750 helical Darrieus-type vertical windmills that have their own inherent beauty. A combined staircase and ramp leads visitors to a recycled wood ship platform on the top of the space frame where they can experience unique views over the city from the 32-meter high bow of the ship.

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Wind Decoder
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: António Pliz, Cláudia Branco
Artist Location: Borba, Portugal
Energy Technologies: aeroelastic flutter (Windbelt™)

The Wind Decoder is a climate-responsive artistic work that promotes an understanding of climate conditions and the technologies available to harvest their energies. The work is similar to a hypercube comprised of three cubes where the outer cube is 30 meters high, and the two inner cubes are 26 meters and 22 meters high.

Old constructions found on the site, including steel and a wooden amphitheatre, give dialectic depth to Wind Decoder’s materials. These physical links contrast old and new materials, such as wood and aluminum. The orthogonal lines of the former industrial facilities help define the new form, evoking memory and connecting the sculpture to the history of the site.

The cubic form is associated with stability and balance—two ambitions for future societies as citizens’ environmental consciousness grows. These ambitions are represented by the outer cube. The slightly rotated and twisted inner cubes represent the wind’s dynamic force, affecting its stability—an analogy to the imbalances of the past. Lights provide a visual representation of the production of wind energy.

The vertical planes are filled with 8200 Humdinger™ Windcell™ panels of 1.0m x 1.0m x 0.05m. Independent Windbelts™ with LED’s will perform the light effect. Despite the main wind streams travelling from west to southwest, the cubic form is designed to react to the movement of the wind from every quadrant.

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Aetherius

Aetherius
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Marilu Valente
Artist Location: London, UK
Energy Technologies: wind-driven hydraulic cylinder generators

Aetherius expresses the poetic potential of the natural resource of wind, as well as its potential to generate energy. Although wind does not have a shape or color, it can come alive and express its powerful elegance through the use of technology. The intervention aims to transmit the beauty of wind through its material manifestation. Aetherius enables the contemplation of nature as a source of beauty.

The installation moves according to the weather conditions—most specifically to the wind speed, frequency, and direction. The wind direction is not always constant. Even though the prevailing wind is westerly, there is always a microclimate created within an urban context. Aetherius responds to this unpredictability.

Two structures each cover a volume of 40 meters long by 45 meters wide by 30 meters high. The undulating façade is supported by two lateral walls that act as an enclosing architectural feature facilitating the organization of public events, such as concerts and markets.

The wind actuates a series of ultra-light wings attached to a pivot that can rotate within limits, adjusting for possible proximity to visitors. This initiates an interaction between the visitors and the structure.

The top of each wing is linked to a supporting beam with springs that have different levels of elasticity. Therefore each wing moves in a different way than its neighbor wing. This results in an ever-changing façade that responds to surrounding environmental conditions.

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100*100*100 WIND TOWER
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Mitsuhiro Wada, Takanori Ishii
Artist Location: Brussels, Belgium
Energy Technologies: vertical axis wind turbines

100*100*100 WIND TOWER is a 100-meter cube consisting of a myriad of small windmills that can be seen across the Copenhagen Harbor.

Overlapping frames rise up, giving the appearance of an ordered morning mist. This huge volume is empty at first. It is for the citizens of Denmark to populate the tower with individual contributions of spherical, vertical-axis wind turbines that are available in three sizes: 600 mm, 1200 mm, and 2400 mm. Similar to a crowdsourcing model, a family can contribute a small-size windmill, and a company can purchase a large-size windmill.

This community of turbines will offset the energy use of the individual investors and help Copenhagen achieve its Carbon Neutral 2025 plan. Once the tower is completely filled with turbines, its output will rival that of a conventional wind turbine. By 2025, the tower will contain the maximum number of turbines from the citizens of Copenhagen. The result will symbolize Copenhagen’s commitment to a sustainable future.

Between the double walls of the artwork, a gentle ramp extends from the ground to the summit. An observatory at the top offers a view around the city of Copenhagen. A nighttime glow at the top of the tower represents the amount of electricity produced by the artwork. Days with strong winds will produce a brighter glow than days with faint wind.

The turbines are similar to units developed by Japan Environmental Promotion Association. Because of its small size, Wind Tower can operate with wind speeds as low as 2–6m/s. Its spherical shape enables it to react to the wind from all sides.

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Blowing Horn
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Hooman Tahvildar Akbary
Artist Location: Tehran, Iran
Energy Technologies: Windbelt™, compact wind acceleration turbine, multi-rotor wind turbine

Near the shores of the great Belt, which is one of the straits that connect the Cattegat with the Baltic, stands an old mansion with thick red walls. I know every stone of it, says the Wind.
-The Story of the Wind, Hans Christian Andersen

This new energy monument is oriented toward the most powerful and prevailing winds on the site. Its form gives reference to the large horns that were used throughout history to call across long distances, but it also serves an important utility. By reducing the cone diameter from the mouth, the speed of the wind increases towards the narrower end of the horn—an application of the compact acceleration turbine lens that makes use of the venture effect.

Inside of Blowing Horn there are a series of wind rotors with a single drive shaft—a multi-rotor wind turbine invented by Doug Selsam. By placing multiple rotors onto a single shaft, the amount of energy that is generated on a single turbine is multiplied.

The ship form at the base of monument is designed to act as a channel, which leads wind through a Windbelt™ array on the deck and the outer shell of this new golden horn for environmental energy production.

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Sight

Sight
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Michal Pajakiewicz, Magdalena Rolka
Artist Location: Moscow, Russia
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric generators, photovoltaic thin-film

Sight is installed on the front part of the design site, responding to the unique relationship the location has to its industrial past and the Little Mermaid.

Sight uses the image of the eye as an indicator of the sea level and as a reminder of climate change that will affect us all. The changing environment will affect the visibility of the “eye.” As sea levels rise, the eye will gradually be less visible and will eventually disappear under the water. Until this time, the area will be a wetland—a station for birds and other seacoast species. It will serve the citizens and guests of Copenhagen as a place of rest, relaxation, and meditation.

An angled mirror is constructed on a steel frame. The reflective film is perforated in a form of flaps, equipped with piezoelectric modules. This makes the picture sensitive to weather effects and reduces wind impact by harnessing its energy. On the reverse of the plane is a large photovoltaic array.

Below the angled structure, an image of a child’s eye is constructed pixel-by-pixel with a change of depth from zero to nearly two meters. In the shallow parts, where underwater currents accelerate, the bottom is covered with piezoelectric modules. In deeper parts, the bottom is covered with a local bright stone and local sand. The steep vertical surfaces dividing areas of different depths are reinforced with gabions.

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Oscillating Platforms
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Felix Cheong
Artist Location: Toronto, Canada
Energy Technologies: wind sails, oscillating water column, Wells turbine

Oscillating Platforms invites the surrounding waterway to enter the site, creating a flooded area within the Sønder Hoved Pier into which a series of freeform, floating platforms are anchored. These platforms, reminiscent of inverse ship hauls, have masts and sails integrated into the design, allowing them to catch the prevailing winds coming from the west. In addition, they are meant to be habitable surfaces that visitors can use as viewing platforms out onto the water.

The platforms act as oscillating water columns that convert both wind and tidal energy into electricity. The design utilizes a modified version of an oscillating water column. The device consists of a pressurized air chamber, which is partially submerged in the water. The energy of the waves and the motion of the platform (resulting from the force of the wind harnessed by the sails, as well as the activity and weight of the occupants) forces captured air through a Wells turbine at the top of the water column. As the water level relative to the platform descends, it draws in air from the exposed top of the water column, also powering the turbine, which rotates in one direction regardless of the direction of airflow.

Oscillating Platforms is playful as well as functional, inviting interaction with people of all ages at any time of the year.



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Golden Roots
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Ronny Zschörper, Franziska Adler
Artist Location: Münster, Germany
Energy Technologies: biomass, piezoelectric paving

Golden Roots contrasts the urban environment of Copenhagen with the experience of unspoiled nature, suggesting a childhood walk through golden fields of grain. The installation recalls Denmark as a sparsely populated, agrarian country, where its inhabitants maintained a close relationship with nature. A system of paths and bridges guides visitors through a constellation of crop circles, bringing the calm countryside to life in the city.

The experience of being enveloped by nature is achieved through circular fields of rye, which has a natural maximum height of two meters. Red poppies, so familiar in the region, provide a splash of color and biodiversity. The fields are periodically harvested to generate high-energy biomass as well as to provide materials for the construction of observation towers, which change every season. Rye bales coated with potassium silicate are used to create towers of up to 18 meters tall when maximum crop yields are achieved.

Paths and bridges allow visitors to walk within and to rise above the circles of rye. In addition to the energy production through biomass, each crop circle (connected by the paths) contains a piezoelectric floor, transforming the kinetic energy of people into electric energy.

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Natalie Mossin and Simone Kongsbak from Smith Innovation in Copenhagen discuss how we can creatively integrate renewable energy into our cities. How can we make new energy-generating interventions that people would like to be a part of and live next door to?

More from Natalie Mossin on Danish renewable energy and the cooperative movement in Denmark:

The overall objective of a sustainable society is, in the end, a collective objective. Taking over ownership of energy production is not an end in itself. It is the taking ownership of the collective solution that is interesting. The initiatives of individuals should be a part of that. The Andelsbevægelsen, or cooperative movement, in Denmark is a really strong part of our culture and it shows beautifully how each individual can take ownership in the collective solution. Each person has a role and influence, but all are acting for the common good.

Natalie Mossin is also head of the Danish Architects’ Association (Arkitektforeningen).

Video by Deborah Hosking

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