· July 2014

July 2014

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Wind Harp: Wind Energy as Music
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Brian Chi Fung Lee, Ken Ka Chun Lee, Terry Chun Yin Chan
Artist Location: Copenhagen, Denmark
Energy Technologies: aeroelastic flutter (Windbelt{TM})

Wind Harp situates itself as a monument on a portion of the design site in order to stimulate events while allowing the rest of the site to populate with natural growth. By intervening at the far end of the harbor side, the generator collaborates with the surrounding buildings to form a frame, enclosing the void between as the center of activity.

A stationary crane structure of 30 meters by 100 meters is erected at the proposed area near the coastline, next to the water taxi station. The structure, a minimal frame of lightweight steel, is a reference to the gantry cranes that once operated in the B&W shipyard in the former life of the site.

On both sides of this crane, a total of 224 “wind strings” are attached to the structure at one end and to the ground at the other. As these “strings” are placed in tension, they generate both electricity and sound through oscillation by wind or by direct human interaction. The subsequent energy is then harvested by small devices attached to the opposite ends of the string. The turbine noises typically associated with conventional wind turbines are transformed into music.

The strings are spaced out at 80-centimeter intervals, allowing people to walk through and between this instrument. The two sets of strings also create a metaphoric tent that welcomes people to dwell inside, either by enjoying the symphony of sounds generated by wind passing through, or to play the instrument directly with their hands.

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Refkløver
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Allison Palenske, Christina Gråberg Røsholt, Akshaya Narsimhan, Javier Vidal Aguilera, Zhao Xie, Diandra Saginatari, Yanli Shen
Artist Location: Edinburgh, UK
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric wires, Pavegen™ pavers

Geometric forms subtly merge with the organic in Refkløver, a contemporary urban adaptation of picturesque meadow drifts that inspires contemplation amidst a new renewable energy power plant for the City of Copenhagen. Hearing the sound of the wind through the grasses and perennials, visitors will feel a part of the energy generation and can participate in it through kinetic interactions.

Taken from microscopic studies of the Danish national flower, the rødkløver (red clover, Trifolium pratense), the form of the energy-generating structures mimics the veins found on the leaves and bracts of the plant. These veins act as highways for photosynthetic processes, transporting energy and sugars to the rest of the plant. The design of Refkløver acts in a similar way. Using piezoelectric wires to represent the veins of the plant, wind movement will generate energy through these delicate fibers and will be transported to the city grid.

Each energy-producing module consists of a cluster of four recycled stainless steel structures at various heights, with piezoelectric wires spanning across each surface. These wires transform their own movement, caused by wind currents, into electrical energy. The specific piezoelectric technology used is nanoparticle-coated yarns patented by Perera & Mauretti in 2009. These fibers are embedded within 1-millimeter braided stainless steel threads.

The 300 small clusters, 168 medium clusters, and 260 large clusters of triangles found on the site are oriented primarily to take advantage of the prevailing wind direction and also intermittent variations in wind patterns. Additionally, 1,557 Pavegen™ kinetic flooring tiles are interspersed throughout a paved path and convert the weight of passing visitors into electricity.

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Balance | Imbalance
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Hideaki Nishimura
Artist Location: Tokyo, Japan
Energy Technologies: Buoy-type wave converter with Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle (EPAM by SRI International and Bayer Material Science), Sphelar® photovoltaic, piezoelectric films.

BALANCE | IMBALANCE generates energy from wave, wind, and human activities. The design site is interpreted as an intersecting area between land and ocean, human and nature. The main concept of this kinetic sculpture is to demonstrate the beauty of balance and imbalance between contradicting entities.

The artwork has two arms with buoys suspended at the ocean side. The movement of the attached weight elongates and contracts Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle (EPAM). The expansion and contraction of this artificial muscle generates electricity, reversing the process through which natural muscles expand and contract when stimulated by electricity.
Spherical solar devices are installed at the landside as an integral part of the counterweight system.

In addition to these two primary devices, piezoelectric generators are installed at each joint within the system to convert the internal forces of compression and tension into electricity as the balance sways in conjunction with wave and wind motion. The same action is also made from the landside where visitors can activate this energy-harvesting system by making use of the attached furniture, such as seesaws and hammocks. The more interaction there is between people and the artwork, the greater the amount of electricity that is produced.

A small portion of the energy produced goes toward lighting the site at night. The intensity of the LED lighting will shift according to wave motion. This luminous wave line will act as an iconic spectacle and an impressive backdrop when viewed from the opposite shore.

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Postulate
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Luka Stojanovic, Djordje Subaric, Milica Didic, Marko Babic
Artist Location: Nis, Serbia
Energy Technologies: photovoltaic panels

Postulate represents the time distance between the Big Bang and the present, and the stages that have marked the path of the universe by reflecting the Constellation Orion onto the earth at Refshaleøen.

The artwork is also a constructed transposition of the sub-linguistic systems that undergird our universal grammar—the fundamental building blocks of our communication. The dodecahedron is the starting point geometry onto which is mapped the twelve stages of the life of the universe and twelve universal primordial representations of language and meaning.

These symbols modify the shape of the dodecahedron and come together to create the entire sculptural form. Photovoltaic panels create the skin of the structure and generate energy—a dialogue between the scale of the universe and the subatomic scale of the electron, which forms our thoughts and our language expression while also powering our economies.

Visitors to the installation will be taken on a journey of discovery through time and space as they progress through the twelve-stage walking path of cosmos-city-human/thought. Infinite space meets infinite complexity.

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This weekend we had the delightful opportunity to participate in the final show at the University of Oregon’s Overlook Field School, which is generously hosted at the Fuller Center for Productive Landscapes near Scranton, PA.


The horse barn at the Fuller Center for Productive Landscapes

Each year Associate Professor Roxi Thoren designs a unique curriculum around a theme related to productive landscapes. Year one (2012) was related to agriculture, year two (2013) challenged students to think about forestry, and this third year was dedicated to the theme Landscape of Power.

The outcome is one or more ambitious built projects by each student set within the stunning and varied Overlook landscape (they only have two weeks from conception to finished installation). Below are some photos of the resulting projects from this year’s field school along with the students’ concept statements. Students were asked to create interventions that challenge understandings of the relationship of landscape to power production and consumption. Some chose to create installations that incorporated renewable power production in some way, some chose to convey messages of energy sustainability, and others chose to work with natural energies in thoughtful ways.



Howl, by Miranda Hawkes. Howl is an interactive sculpture that amplifies the sound of the wind and demonstrates the generative potential of the wind at Overlook. Using the reverberative technology of a pipe organ, the individual tubes harmonize as the wind passes over them, while the wedge shape directs the sound to the user. Allowed to swivel freely, Howl invites the participant to tune the machine as they interact with it.



Anemograph, by Grayson Morris. Anemograph encourages interaction and artfully displays wind speed recordings, altering the visitor’s perception of wind energy.


Breakfast, by Grayson Morris. This piece captures the tantalizing motion of the weeping cherry tree in the form of ink on paper. Daily anemometer recordings are paired with the movement of the branches that sway beyond the dining room window.



Consumed, by Krisztian Megyeri. This project investigates how land art can be used to communicate ideas while providing aesthetic intrigue. A path in the forest leads through a series of installations that can be interpreted as infographics about resource and energy consumption. The three-dimensionality of the pieces aims to heighten the visitor experience by making the information more poignant and relatable.




Electric Fescue, by Andrew Jepson-Sullivan. Inspired by the fields of northeastern Pennsylvania, a new species of grass has sprouted at Overlook. Like the many other plant species, Festuca electricus gathers energy from sunlight in a photosynthesis-like process. At night the energy is released, creating a glowing light display that entices creatures to visit and linger under sharp, pointy inflorescences.



Mine, Midden, Artifact, by Kate Tromp van Holst. Mine, Midden, Artifact is a reflection of our past and present material culture and the processes involved in that culture, including the extraction of fuels and materials, manufacturing of objects, and those objects returning to the earth in waste piles and landfills. The location of the installation capitalizes on structures once used for power and water, which have become obsolete with modern technology, much like the artifacts inside.



Wind Scene I and II, by Kelly Stoecklein. I – To see wind it must act on an object, making it visible. Inspiration for this piece comes from observing the relationship of wind and water and the patterns created from that interaction. Inspired by whimsical, playful, and delicate themes and experiences, it is intended to be a tool for reading the wind as a means to create a meditative and thoughtful place for contemplation and curiosity. II – Currents, static to dynamic, and the movement created from delicate disruption are made visible in Scene II. By distiling the observable object to a simple, soft, and subtle light, the currents and their interactions are emphasized creating a field of ephemeral moving light.

Thank you Roxi for inviting us to take part in the presentation of this year’s outcomes, and thank you to the Fuller family for hosting us at their lovely estate. Thanks also to Fraser Stuart, Liska Chan, and Anne Godfrey, who have incorporated the Land Art Generator Initiative project into their Landscape Architecture curricula at the University of Oregon. Thank you all for sharing the LAGI conceptual framework and competition outcomes with your students. Knowing that the project is reaching and being appreciated by an audience of brilliant academic minds makes all our hard work worth while.

Rør

Rør
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Evan Wakelin, Christopher Tron, Sylvia Zhou
Artist Location: Toronto, Canada
Energy Technologies: micro wind turbines driven by the solar thermal expansion of air

Rør is an inflatable, pneumatic public art park that harnesses solar energy and invites visitors to actively participate in the generation of power. The greater the level of physical interaction with the structures, the more energy is generated. Using a lighthearted and lightweight approach, the multi-colored pneumatic tube park is a fun celebration of the environment, challenging the public to take a positive stance toward the pressing issues of climate change.

Climate change research estimates that Copenhagen will face increased and prolonged heat waves in the future as well as heavier rainfall. Rør responds to these future trends by covering only 10 percent of the existing green space to minimize heat island effect and to absorb all rainfall on site.

Rør takes advantage of future heat waves by using solar radiation as its primary power source. Its autonomous pneumatic structures generate energy through solar radiation and human interaction. This energy is harnessed using solar updraft tower technology, but rather than transfer heated air to centralized turbines, Rør incorporates an array of smaller turbines over the surface of the tubes. As visitors add their weight to the tubes, it increases the rate of escaping air through the micro turbines.

The lightweight pneumatic tubes are easily moveable and the arrangement of the tubes are determined by the activities and requirements of the people—the visitors have complete control over how to create and inhabit the space and are free to roll and rearrange the tubes to create new and unique spaces. The resulting pockets of space and pathways provide opportunities for community engagement, moments of play, and exploration.

Because Rør is a dynamic energy installation that can transform on demand, each visit to the park will be a new experience.

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The Cloud
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Tim Thikaj
Artist Location: Copenhagen, Denmark
Energy Technologies: micro wind turbines

A cloud is a visible mass of condensed water vapor floating in the atmosphere, typically high above the ground. It describes an indistinct mass, especially of smoke or dust, a large number of insects, or birds moving together within a certain dynamic. With regard to fractals in mathematics, a cloud can refer to a set of multidimensional points. The Cloud exists as a visual metaphor— the image of a fractal that is both illustrative and abstract. It can be described as being both solid and hollow. It is mathematically predictable, while also being ever-changing.

The Cloud is conceived as a social gathering point, where activities, such as swimming and enjoying the weather, can take place. It is an alternative, self-powered pool area, which is accessible both summer and winter.

The Cloud uses the geometry of the sphere in its facade. The circular wings of the turbines reflect natural and artificial light and, while moving, visually interact with the surroundings and the inside space. When each turbine reaches a certain speed, the edges of the blades become invisible to the eyes and transform into a three-dimensional shape with a diffused, misty, white surface. The Cloud measures 28 meters at its highest point. Though the cloud is a structure of symbolic status, the height is low and similar to the buildings found in the City of Copenhagen to better integrate it into the landscape.

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Beyond the Wave
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Jaesik Lim, Ahyoung Lee, Sunpil Choi, Dohyoung Kim, Hoeyoung Jung, Jaeyeol Kim, Hansaem Kim (Heerim Architects & Planners)
Artist Location: Seoul, South Korea
Energy Technologies: organic photovoltaic (OPV), kinetic harvesting (piezoelectric)

Inspired by Len Lye’s diverse and dynamic kinetic art, the wavy expression of ribbons and flexible poles that comprise Beyond the Wave creates tangible and intangible movements through a healing environment. The allocation of the poles and ribbons are based on Copenhagen’s wind rose and soil survey map. Therefore, the frequency, density, and spacing between the poles are determined by the wind strength and intensity.

The strength of the wind influences the varying movements of the flexible poles. The ribbon that interconnects the poles symbolically becomes a “wave,” representing the encounter between the water and the wind. The system utilizes the power of the sun while also harnessing the forces within the support structures to produce additional energy. The site is composed of an array of poles to allow spatial settings for various human activities and movements.

The ribbons consist of transparent, organic solar material that responds to the movement of the wind. The OPV panel attached to 1.5-meter wide ribbon generates energy, which is partially used for OLED lighting. The display panel in the lower part of the pole indicates the amount of energy generated and reduction of CO2, showcasing energy saving effects in real time.


Electrokinetic Remediation: Installation of electrodes in the soil that induce conductive physical/chemical reaction with the addition of electrical current. The contaminants are extracted and removed through this technique. Existing Soil pollutants are concentrated and removed in the cathodic direction through the flow of Electro-osmotic fluids. The Electrophoresis (Electro-osmosis) is the phenomenon of the charged particles present in the soil moving in an electric field towards a particular direction of electrodes. Cation elements such as heavy metals will move in the cathodic direction to be removed, while organic and inorganic anions move in the anodic direction.

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Onshore Power
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Han Bao, Feng Xu
Artist Location: Melbourne, Australia
Energy Technologies: wind-driven hydraulic cylinder generators

It is the finest design that can change our lives, and it is the smallest changes that lead us to challenge our everyday perspectives. Onshore Power is situated at the interface between energy-producing infrastructures and human use. It achieves this through an integration of the ecological flows of wind, water, energy, and mobility.

A simple physics experiment can demonstrate that two strips of paper will stick together when wind blows between them due to the change in air pressure. Using this physical property, the hundreds of extremely lightweight plates that comprise Onshore Power move closer to each other and spring back to their original places as high winds pass through. The movement of plates transferred to the vertical shafts generates electricity.

Onshore Power is at once a generator, a recharger for boats, a dock, and a destination. It is made up of layers of flexible plates aligned to the course of the wind, with walkways and lookout points traced through its interior. As wind blows across the structures, the movement generated in the plates creates energy that is converted and stored in the micro-tubes that scaffolds the structure. The experience within Onshore Power is a theatrical and powerful one, where the normally invisible strength of wind is acted out through the oscillations of the plates. The entire process of energy production, conduction, and consumption that people have come to take for granted is suddenly made visible.

Onshore Power creates possibilities for the foreseeable future, and it raises the questions: who are we and what we are connecting with?

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Celebrating the Sun
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Sturla Sandsdalen, Knut Helge Teppan
Artist Location: Oslo, Norway
Energy Technologies: heliostatic photovoltaic panels

The sun is the origin of all life and energy on our planet. It has spawned myths, awe, and wonder throughout history and defines every day and every year of every person on our planet.

Celebrating the Sun is an art installation that connects us to the sun by reflecting its movements through the sky. Visitors can experience the slow movements and changing geometry of the installation with slow changes during the day and subtle adjustments during the year.

The installation consists of a large structural arch along the length of which moves a solar panel trolley, driven by an electric engine and powered by the solar panel itself. The movement of the trolley is a three-dimensional representation of the sun’s path across the sky over the course of a day. Tension cables tilt the entire arch up or down slightly each day to maintain the seasonal rhythm and match the height of the sun in the sky. All electric components and mechanisms are hidden inside the arch or in installations on the ground, achieving a clean and elegant expression.

The arch has a radius of 30 meters, making it clearly visible on the other side of the water. It will reach its highest angle of 57.71° on June 21. From there, it will slowly lower itself to 10.96° on December 21.

The arch and its solar panel are fitted with LED lights to mark the times and days related to the sun and the seasons.

The area surrounding the installation is used for urban gardening. Horticulturalists will be assisted in their seasonal planning with daily reference to the angle of the artwork—a solar clock of sorts.

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Sail

Sail
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Andrew Jepson-Sullivan, Grayson Morris
Artist Location: Eugene (OR), USA
Energy Technologies: aeroelastic flutter (Windbelt™)

The word “sail” is defined as an object extended on a mast in such a way as to transmit the force of the wind into power. Used as a verb, “sail” suggests a voyage, as in moving toward a renewable energy future.

SAIL projects prominently from the west corner of the former shipyard into the prevailing wind, providing an elegant symbol of clean energy for the city of Copenhagen. The form recalls the shipbuilding past of the harbor, transforming from the rigid cup of a ship’s hull to the graceful, unfurled surface of an open sail. A curled base results in limited ground-level impact, while the open face at the crest maximizes surface area for wind collection through the use of Windbelt™ technology.

In this design, the site at Refshaleøen is left almost entirely undisturbed, allowing for large gatherings and events to occur, with SAIL acting as a visual backdrop. Visitors to the site are invited to “enter the wind” at the apex of the tower, becoming part of the energy infrastructure that powers the city.

As night falls, SAIL produces a bright, fluctuating spectacle. Each Windbelt™ membrane on SAIL is coated with a thin OLED layer (organic light-emitting diodes that emit light in response to an electric current) that glows when the membrane oscillates in response to the wind. OLEDs can be printed onto flexible and transparent substrates, making the membrane of the Windbelt™ an ideal surface. The OLEDs fluctuate in brightness depending on how much power is being generated by each individual membrane, resulting in a shimmering light display that reflects how much power is being produced by the entire structure in real-time.

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Factoryscape
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Yasin Toparlar, Onur Can Tepe, Huseyin Penbeoglu
Artist Location: Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Energy Technologies: algae photobioreactors, boiler/steam turbine


Factoryscape removes existing solid land, generating space for algae photobioreactors—an urban-agriculture area that uses the sun, CO2, neighboring waste, and the forces of the sea to create biofuel from algae.

The algae farm is interlocked with a complex engine comprised of time-tested technologies that dewater, compress, transesterificate, and burn the algae, then produce steam out of its energy, and ultimately convert the steam into electricity. All these machines stand together on the site as a central objet d’art, reminding us of the accumulation of human inventions that are needed to create cycles of self-sufficiency. The complexity and the materiality of the installation create an image that we all are familiar with and of which we may be wrongly suspicious. Love it or hate it, the machine is the child of our collective, accumulative endeavor.

Contrary to our industrial past, this complex machine is not designed as an object of pure utility. Rather, it is recontextualized and dwarfed by a gigantic red surface that encapsulates it—creating a dense, cave-like environment. Within this grotto, the sounds from the machine are echoed, its connectivity is accentuated, and its aesthetics are exploited.

Visitors to this environment encounter the technologies in an entirely new manner that will cause them to reflect upon the relationship between man and machine.

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Light Guard // Know Your Flood Risk
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Vincent Trarieux
Artist Location: Brive-la-Gaillarde, France
Energy Technologies: photovoltaic panels

Light Guard is a land art generator for both energy generation and flood-prevention risk. It is a dynamic structure that responds to the design site through climate prevention.

The installation consists of a series of 137 metal columns spaced one meter wide and measuring 35 meters in height. Each series of two columns support an autonomous system of alternating photovoltaic panels and a system of plates with bright colored LEDs.

Glowing from light blue to deep red, the LED panels serve the city as a warning mechanism for flood risk and prevention. Ranging from normal risk to heightened risk to evacuation due to imminent threat, Light Guard helps to keep the citizens of Copenhagen safe from rising sea levels.

The installation takes advantage of the area in front of the design site while preserving the site itself as a space for various events. A footbridge connects Refshaleøen to Light Guard, inviting visitors to pause and enjoy the lookout facing the sea.

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Energy Duck
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Hareth Pochee, Adam Khan, Louis Leger, Patrick Fryer
Artist Location: London, UK
Energy Technologies: photovoltaic panels (Panasonic HIT or similar), hydraulic turbines (Kaplan, Francis, or similar 100–500 kW capacity)

So much more than just a duck! Energy Duck is an entertaining, iconic sculpture, a renewable energy generator, a habitable tourist destination, and a celebration of local wildlife.

The common eider duck resides in great numbers in Copenhagen; however, its breeding habitat is at risk from the effects of climate change. Energy Duck takes the form of the eider to act both as a solar collector and a buoyant energy storage device.

Solar radiation is converted to electricity using low cost, off-the-shelf PV panels. Some of the solar electricity is stored by virtue of the difference in water levels inside and outside the duck.

When stored energy needs to be delivered, the duck is flooded through one or more hydro turbines to generate electricity, which is transmitted to the national grid by the same route as the PV panel-generated electricity. Solar energy is later used to pump the water back out of the duck, and buoyancy brings it to the surface. The floating height of the duck indicates the relative cost of electricity as a function of city-wide use: as demand peaks the duck sinks.

Visitors inside the duck will have views upward to reveal the striking pattern of the mesh of PV panels in silhouette, backlit by daylight streaming through the air gaps. Looking downward allows one to see seawater rising and falling within the pressure storage tanks.

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The Sound of Denmark
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Laura Mesa Arango, Rafael Sanchez Herrera
Artist Location: Vienna, Austria
Energy Technologies: compact wind acceleration turbines

The force of the wind has carried the development of Denmark since ancient times. Wind strength assisted the Vikings as they colonized new lands, and now wind power provides renewable energy to Denmark. Because this natural force has always been rooted in the development of the country, the wind is the sound of Denmark. The Sound of Denmark creates a space for reflection and to feel this natural force that drives Denmark. It is a space for remembering the past and envisioning the future. This is a sound-landscape.

The Sound of Denmark consists of four Viking horn trios, each trio consisting of a large, medium, and small horn. The largest horn is carved with the letter of the alphabet that refers to the natural force “sun.” The next in size is carved with the letter that refers to the natural force “water.” And the smallest horn is carved with the letter that refers to the natural force “ice.”

The technology—compact wind acceleration turbine—concentrates the wind and increases its velocity as it passes through the horns. Each Viking horn is comprised of four wind turbines, and the tubular shape makes the lower part of the horn function as a sounding board. Each horn is composed of materials, such as wood and metal, obtained from the hulls of decommissioned ships. In this way, all principal materials used in the project are obtained from waste so that the environmental impact is minimal. In turn, the material has a direct relationship with the industrial and maritime history of its surroundings.

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GRID Slide
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Morten Rask Madsen, Julie Trier Brøgger, Julie Rindung, Natalia Guerrero Gutiérrez, Artis Kurps, Kevin Bailey, Søren Laurentius Nielsen, Per Møller, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Tobias Thomsen
Artist Location: Copenhagen, Denmark
Energy Technologies: algae biofuel

GRID Slide creates renewable energy for the grid based on farming micro algae. GRID Slide’s real potential, however, lies in creating diversity and value from waste products by returning them into circulation.

GRID Slide is also a landscape sliding between land and ocean, transformed by the changing water levels of the sea around Copenhagen. It is a recreational landscape skirting urbanity and nature, landscape, farming, and industrial production.

Three long, slim structures rise 50 meters above an engineered wetland, interacting with the industrial skyline in the background. Seen from the Little Mermaid, the sleek towers contrast with the chimneys behind. From downtown Copenhagen, the structures appear as translucent screens, in contrast to the massive walls of the old B&W assembly building.

Changes in the sea level activate floating pumps that press algae-filled water into the towers. Through the force of gravity, the colored algae liquid is distributed into the towers’ bioreactors. The towers expose the algae to the sun’s light and enable photosynthesis.

Microalgae are fed with nutrients in the form of wastewater and CO2 collected locally from the Lynetten treatment plant and from Amager Power Station. The algae purifies the water while its volume increases up to six-fold during the day. The energy-rich product is collected as gasification feedstock for a 2.5 MW generator located in the bottom of the eastern tower—visible to visitors but enclosed by glass screens. Byproducts of the production cycle include phosphorus, potassium, and recalcitrant carbon, which have many commercial applications, including fertilizer.

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The Ephemeral Machine
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Alfio Faro, Denise Leclerc
Artist Location: Paris, France
Energy Technologies: thin film photovoltaic (balloons), APB 350 (Autonomous Power Buoy® by OPT)

The Ephemeral Machine combines an image of the historic steam engines produced by Burmeister & Wain (characterized by massive volumes with pistons moving vertically) with the contemporary vertical elements of the site (chimneys, cranes, silos, and antennas), resulting in an evocative energy installation and landscape artwork.

The movement, and energy produced is the substantial element of this installation, while the form and the materials of its components are nothing more than ephemeral temporary conditions. This 120-meter high installation occupies the sea portion in front of the former shipyard and is composed of more than 550 vertical elements. Each element is divided into an underwater structure affixed to the sea floor, a floating buoy-like raft, and a transparent vertical helium balloon connected by a steel wire to the raft. The entire system is easily set in motion by the waves and the action of the wind on the balloons. Rafts on the surface of the water are accessible to visitors, the actions of which contribute another element of motion and energy production.

The Ephemeral Machine utilizes existing technologies: buoy-type wave converters and semitransparent photovoltaic film. The balloons and the rafts are conceived to counterbalance each other in order to generate soft and gentle movements.

From a landscape point of view, the artwork creates a dense volume—suggesting the shape of engines but also the voluminous encumbrance of present-day cargos and sea liners). However, the form dematerializes due to the lightness and transparency of the balloons, which are the only visible elements from urban-scale distances.

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SunBath
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Jacob Boswell, David Shimmel, Ian Mackay
Artist Location: Columbus (OH), USA
Energy Technologies: solar pond, thermoelectric generators


SunBath offers a series of large, public, indoor and outdoor baths, both hot and cold, encircling and actively participating in a working power plant. The site thus becomes a type of liminal space, blurring the distinction between land and water while also challenging the false dichotomy of a productive vs. a pleasure landscape.

Energy is generated at SunBath through the interactions between five key elements:

1. The Solar Pond
A 14,700 m2 salt gradient solar pond is covered by a greenhouse to prevent disturbance of the water and to aid in the maintenance of its internal temperature.

2. The Catalyzing Pool
In a typical solar pond installation, heat from the pond is used as part of a district heating operation or passed through a standard heat engine to produce electricity. At SunBath, heat from the solar pond is transferred to a catalyzing pool via a series of heat pipes.


3. The Minto Wheel
Cold water from the harbor is pumped into the catalyzing pool via the Minto wheel and used to continuously cool the condensing end of the heat pipes. It is at this threshold between the hot pipes and the cold harbor water that electricity is generated. This is accomplished via a series of Seebeck Thermo Electric Generators (TEGs).

4. The Attenuating Pool
Partially warmed water flows from the catalyzing pool to the attenuating pool, the heated water of which powers the Minto wheel. This cycle creates a self-regulating system.

5. The Harbor
The harbor and the consistently cold water fed to it by the Øresund are the true source of power on the site. The mechanism for producing electricity at SunBath is not purely solar heat, but rather the difference in temperature between the warm side of the thermoelectric generator (the solar pond) and the cold side (the harbor water). The colder the harbor is, the more electricity the SunBath generates.

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Super Cloud
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Lucas Jarry, Rita Serra e Silva, Lucas Guyon, Marianne Ullmann
Artist Location: Prague, Czech Republic
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric discs

Super Cloud mimics the movement of wind patterns. As each tube floats between ground and sky, vibrating in the wind, it acts as a dynamic element within the landscape. Art, energy, and the land act together in a cohesive system, delivering clean, renewable energy.

The Cloud embraces, enhances, and interacts with its environment, amplifying its changing states. Shadows, vibrations, and reflections create a unique aesthetic experience through time, weather, and season.

Super Cloud is made up of pliable carbon fiber tubes. A steel space truss structure (270 meters x 60 meters) lifts from the ground and anchors approximately 14,500 tubes (ranging from 2 meters to 10 meters). Half of these tubes are fastened to the top of the structure while the other half hang from the bottom. The varied sizes of circular, sectioned tubes capture the ever-changing direction of the wind.

Located on a site that is largely exposed to wind patterns, the basis of energy production comes from converting kinetic energy into electrical energy. Piezoelectric generators at the base of each carbon element harvest the kinetic energy of the wind and transform it into electrical energy.

From afar, an enormous oscillating mass appears to rise from the land and drift over the sea, revealing an intriguing complexity of reflections and fluctuating light levels. Shivering softly with the wind, it clearly establishes its main purpose: permanent and continuous movement.

Closer to the Island, the structure’s enormous dimensions start to unfold and create a distinct image. What originally looked like a mass is now recognized as individual tubes that continuously resonate with the wind.

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