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Wind Harp: Wind Energy as Music
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Brian Chi Fung Lee, Ken Ka Chun Lee, Terry Chun Yin Chan
Artist Location: Copenhagen, Denmark
Energy Technologies: aeroelastic flutter (Windbelt{TM})

Wind Harp situates itself as a monument on a portion of the design site in order to stimulate events while allowing the rest of the site to populate with natural growth. By intervening at the far end of the harbor side, the generator collaborates with the surrounding buildings to form a frame, enclosing the void between as the center of activity.

A stationary crane structure of 30 meters by 100 meters is erected at the proposed area near the coastline, next to the water taxi station. The structure, a minimal frame of lightweight steel, is a reference to the gantry cranes that once operated in the B&W shipyard in the former life of the site.

On both sides of this crane, a total of 224 “wind strings” are attached to the structure at one end and to the ground at the other. As these “strings” are placed in tension, they generate both electricity and sound through oscillation by wind or by direct human interaction. The subsequent energy is then harvested by small devices attached to the opposite ends of the string. The turbine noises typically associated with conventional wind turbines are transformed into music.

The strings are spaced out at 80-centimeter intervals, allowing people to walk through and between this instrument. The two sets of strings also create a metaphoric tent that welcomes people to dwell inside, either by enjoying the symphony of sounds generated by wind passing through, or to play the instrument directly with their hands.

Refkløver
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Allison Palenske, Christina Gråberg Røsholt, Akshaya Narsimhan, Javier Vidal Aguilera, Zhao Xie, Diandra Saginatari, Yanli Shen
Artist Location: Edinburgh, UK
Energy Technologies: piezoelectric wires, Pavegen™ pavers

Geometric forms subtly merge with the organic in Refkløver, a contemporary urban adaptation of picturesque meadow drifts that inspires contemplation amidst a new renewable energy power plant for the City of Copenhagen. Hearing the sound of the wind through the grasses and perennials, visitors will feel a part of the energy generation and can participate in it through kinetic interactions.

Taken from microscopic studies of the Danish national flower, the rødkløver (red clover, Trifolium pratense), the form of the energy-generating structures mimics the veins found on the leaves and bracts of the plant. These veins act as highways for photosynthetic processes, transporting energy and sugars to the rest of the plant. The design of Refkløver acts in a similar way. Using piezoelectric wires to represent the veins of the plant, wind movement will generate energy through these delicate fibers and will be transported to the city grid.

Each energy-producing module consists of a cluster of four recycled stainless steel structures at various heights, with piezoelectric wires spanning across each surface. These wires transform their own movement, caused by wind currents, into electrical energy. The specific piezoelectric technology used is nanoparticle-coated yarns patented by Perera & Mauretti in 2009. These fibers are embedded within 1-millimeter braided stainless steel threads.

The 300 small clusters, 168 medium clusters, and 260 large clusters of triangles found on the site are oriented primarily to take advantage of the prevailing wind direction and also intermittent variations in wind patterns. Additionally, 1,557 Pavegen™ kinetic flooring tiles are interspersed throughout a paved path and convert the weight of passing visitors into electricity.

Balance | Imbalance
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Hideaki Nishimura
Artist Location: Tokyo, Japan
Energy Technologies: Buoy-type wave converter with Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle (EPAM by SRI International and Bayer Material Science), Sphelar® photovoltaic, piezoelectric films.

BALANCE | IMBALANCE generates energy from wave, wind, and human activities. The design site is interpreted as an intersecting area between land and ocean, human and nature. The main concept of this kinetic sculpture is to demonstrate the beauty of balance and imbalance between contradicting entities.

The artwork has two arms with buoys suspended at the ocean side. The movement of the attached weight elongates and contracts Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle (EPAM). The expansion and contraction of this artificial muscle generates electricity, reversing the process through which natural muscles expand and contract when stimulated by electricity.
Spherical solar devices are installed at the landside as an integral part of the counterweight system.

In addition to these two primary devices, piezoelectric generators are installed at each joint within the system to convert the internal forces of compression and tension into electricity as the balance sways in conjunction with wave and wind motion. The same action is also made from the landside where visitors can activate this energy-harvesting system by making use of the attached furniture, such as seesaws and hammocks. The more interaction there is between people and the artwork, the greater the amount of electricity that is produced.

A small portion of the energy produced goes toward lighting the site at night. The intensity of the LED lighting will shift according to wave motion. This luminous wave line will act as an iconic spectacle and an impressive backdrop when viewed from the opposite shore.

Postulate
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Luka Stojanovic, Djordje Subaric, Milica Didic, Marko Babic
Artist Location: Nis, Serbia
Energy Technologies: photovoltaic panels

Postulate represents the time distance between the Big Bang and the present, and the stages that have marked the path of the universe by reflecting the Constellation Orion onto the earth at Refshaleøen.

The artwork is also a constructed transposition of the sub-linguistic systems that undergird our universal grammar—the fundamental building blocks of our communication. The dodecahedron is the starting point geometry onto which is mapped the twelve stages of the life of the universe and twelve universal primordial representations of language and meaning.

These symbols modify the shape of the dodecahedron and come together to create the entire sculptural form. Photovoltaic panels create the skin of the structure and generate energy—a dialogue between the scale of the universe and the subatomic scale of the electron, which forms our thoughts and our language expression while also powering our economies.

Visitors to the installation will be taken on a journey of discovery through time and space as they progress through the twelve-stage walking path of cosmos-city-human/thought. Infinite space meets infinite complexity.

This weekend we had the delightful opportunity to participate in the final show at the University of Oregon’s Overlook Field School, which is generously hosted at the Fuller Center for Productive Landscapes near Scranton, PA.


The horse barn at the Fuller Center for Productive Landscapes

Each year Associate Professor Roxi Thoren designs a unique curriculum around a theme related to productive landscapes. Year one (2012) was related to agriculture, year two (2013) challenged students to think about forestry, and this third year was dedicated to the theme Landscape of Power.

The outcome is one or more ambitious built projects by each student set within the stunning and varied Overlook landscape (they only have two weeks from conception to finished installation). Below are some photos of the resulting projects from this year’s field school along with the students’ concept statements. Students were asked to create interventions that challenge understandings of the relationship of landscape to power production and consumption. Some chose to create installations that incorporated renewable power production in some way, some chose to convey messages of energy sustainability, and others chose to work with natural energies in thoughtful ways.



Howl, by Miranda Hawkes. Howl is an interactive sculpture that amplifies the sound of the wind and demonstrates the generative potential of the wind at Overlook. Using the reverberative technology of a pipe organ, the individual tubes harmonize as the wind passes over them, while the wedge shape directs the sound to the user. Allowed to swivel freely, Howl invites the participant to tune the machine as they interact with it.



Anemograph, by Grayson Morris. Anemograph encourages interaction and artfully displays wind speed recordings, altering the visitor’s perception of wind energy.


Breakfast, by Grayson Morris. This piece captures the tantalizing motion of the weeping cherry tree in the form of ink on paper. Daily anemometer recordings are paired with the movement of the branches that sway beyond the dining room window.



Consumed, by Krisztian Megyeri. This project investigates how land art can be used to communicate ideas while providing aesthetic intrigue. A path in the forest leads through a series of installations that can be interpreted as infographics about resource and energy consumption. The three-dimensionality of the pieces aims to heighten the visitor experience by making the information more poignant and relatable.




Electric Fescue, by Andrew Jepson-Sullivan. Inspired by the fields of northeastern Pennsylvania, a new species of grass has sprouted at Overlook. Like the many other plant species, Festuca electricus gathers energy from sunlight in a photosynthesis-like process. At night the energy is released, creating a glowing light display that entices creatures to visit and linger under sharp, pointy inflorescences.



Mine, Midden, Artifact, by Kate Tromp van Holst. Mine, Midden, Artifact is a reflection of our past and present material culture and the processes involved in that culture, including the extraction of fuels and materials, manufacturing of objects, and those objects returning to the earth in waste piles and landfills. The location of the installation capitalizes on structures once used for power and water, which have become obsolete with modern technology, much like the artifacts inside.



Wind Scene I and II, by Kelly Stoecklein. I – To see wind it must act on an object, making it visible. Inspiration for this piece comes from observing the relationship of wind and water and the patterns created from that interaction. Inspired by whimsical, playful, and delicate themes and experiences, it is intended to be a tool for reading the wind as a means to create a meditative and thoughtful place for contemplation and curiosity. II – Currents, static to dynamic, and the movement created from delicate disruption are made visible in Scene II. By distiling the observable object to a simple, soft, and subtle light, the currents and their interactions are emphasized creating a field of ephemeral moving light.

Thank you Roxi for inviting us to take part in the presentation of this year’s outcomes, and thank you to the Fuller family for hosting us at their lovely estate. Thanks also to Fraser Stuart, Liska Chan, and Anne Godfrey, who have incorporated the Land Art Generator Initiative project into their Landscape Architecture curricula at the University of Oregon. Thank you all for sharing the LAGI conceptual framework and competition outcomes with your students. Knowing that the project is reaching and being appreciated by an audience of brilliant academic minds makes all our hard work worth while.

Rør

Rør
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Evan Wakelin, Christopher Tron, Sylvia Zhou
Artist Location: Toronto, Canada
Energy Technologies: micro wind turbines driven by the solar thermal expansion of air

Rør is an inflatable, pneumatic public art park that harnesses solar energy and invites visitors to actively participate in the generation of power. The greater the level of physical interaction with the structures, the more energy is generated. Using a lighthearted and lightweight approach, the multi-colored pneumatic tube park is a fun celebration of the environment, challenging the public to take a positive stance toward the pressing issues of climate change.

Climate change research estimates that Copenhagen will face increased and prolonged heat waves in the future as well as heavier rainfall. Rør responds to these future trends by covering only 10 percent of the existing green space to minimize heat island effect and to absorb all rainfall on site.

Rør takes advantage of future heat waves by using solar radiation as its primary power source. Its autonomous pneumatic structures generate energy through solar radiation and human interaction. This energy is harnessed using solar updraft tower technology, but rather than transfer heated air to centralized turbines, Rør incorporates an array of smaller turbines over the surface of the tubes. As visitors add their weight to the tubes, it increases the rate of escaping air through the micro turbines.

The lightweight pneumatic tubes are easily moveable and the arrangement of the tubes are determined by the activities and requirements of the people—the visitors have complete control over how to create and inhabit the space and are free to roll and rearrange the tubes to create new and unique spaces. The resulting pockets of space and pathways provide opportunities for community engagement, moments of play, and exploration.

Because Rør is a dynamic energy installation that can transform on demand, each visit to the park will be a new experience.

The Cloud
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Tim Thikaj
Artist Location: Copenhagen, Denmark
Energy Technologies: micro wind turbines

A cloud is a visible mass of condensed water vapor floating in the atmosphere, typically high above the ground. It describes an indistinct mass, especially of smoke or dust, a large number of insects, or birds moving together within a certain dynamic. With regard to fractals in mathematics, a cloud can refer to a set of multidimensional points. The Cloud exists as a visual metaphor— the image of a fractal that is both illustrative and abstract. It can be described as being both solid and hollow. It is mathematically predictable, while also being ever-changing.

The Cloud is conceived as a social gathering point, where activities, such as swimming and enjoying the weather, can take place. It is an alternative, self-powered pool area, which is accessible both summer and winter.

The Cloud uses the geometry of the sphere in its facade. The circular wings of the turbines reflect natural and artificial light and, while moving, visually interact with the surroundings and the inside space. When each turbine reaches a certain speed, the edges of the blades become invisible to the eyes and transform into a three-dimensional shape with a diffused, misty, white surface. The Cloud measures 28 meters at its highest point. Though the cloud is a structure of symbolic status, the height is low and similar to the buildings found in the City of Copenhagen to better integrate it into the landscape.

Beyond the Wave
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Jaesik Lim, Ahyoung Lee, Sunpil Choi, Dohyoung Kim, Hoeyoung Jung, Jaeyeol Kim, Hansaem Kim (Heerim Architects & Planners)
Artist Location: Seoul, South Korea
Energy Technologies: organic photovoltaic (OPV), kinetic harvesting (piezoelectric)

Inspired by Len Lye’s diverse and dynamic kinetic art, the wavy expression of ribbons and flexible poles that comprise Beyond the Wave creates tangible and intangible movements through a healing environment. The allocation of the poles and ribbons are based on Copenhagen’s wind rose and soil survey map. Therefore, the frequency, density, and spacing between the poles are determined by the wind strength and intensity.

The strength of the wind influences the varying movements of the flexible poles. The ribbon that interconnects the poles symbolically becomes a “wave,” representing the encounter between the water and the wind. The system utilizes the power of the sun while also harnessing the forces within the support structures to produce additional energy. The site is composed of an array of poles to allow spatial settings for various human activities and movements.

The ribbons consist of transparent, organic solar material that responds to the movement of the wind. The OPV panel attached to 1.5-meter wide ribbon generates energy, which is partially used for OLED lighting. The display panel in the lower part of the pole indicates the amount of energy generated and reduction of CO2, showcasing energy saving effects in real time.


Electrokinetic Remediation: Installation of electrodes in the soil that induce conductive physical/chemical reaction with the addition of electrical current. The contaminants are extracted and removed through this technique. Existing Soil pollutants are concentrated and removed in the cathodic direction through the flow of Electro-osmotic fluids. The Electrophoresis (Electro-osmosis) is the phenomenon of the charged particles present in the soil moving in an electric field towards a particular direction of electrodes. Cation elements such as heavy metals will move in the cathodic direction to be removed, while organic and inorganic anions move in the anodic direction.

Onshore Power
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Han Bao, Feng Xu
Artist Location: Melbourne, Australia
Energy Technologies: wind-driven hydraulic cylinder generators

It is the finest design that can change our lives, and it is the smallest changes that lead us to challenge our everyday perspectives. Onshore Power is situated at the interface between energy-producing infrastructures and human use. It achieves this through an integration of the ecological flows of wind, water, energy, and mobility.

A simple physics experiment can demonstrate that two strips of paper will stick together when wind blows between them due to the change in air pressure. Using this physical property, the hundreds of extremely lightweight plates that comprise Onshore Power move closer to each other and spring back to their original places as high winds pass through. The movement of plates transferred to the vertical shafts generates electricity.

Onshore Power is at once a generator, a recharger for boats, a dock, and a destination. It is made up of layers of flexible plates aligned to the course of the wind, with walkways and lookout points traced through its interior. As wind blows across the structures, the movement generated in the plates creates energy that is converted and stored in the micro-tubes that scaffolds the structure. The experience within Onshore Power is a theatrical and powerful one, where the normally invisible strength of wind is acted out through the oscillations of the plates. The entire process of energy production, conduction, and consumption that people have come to take for granted is suddenly made visible.

Onshore Power creates possibilities for the foreseeable future, and it raises the questions: who are we and what we are connecting with?

Celebrating the Sun
Submission to the 2014 Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen design competition

Artist Team: Sturla Sandsdalen, Knut Helge Teppan
Artist Location: Oslo, Norway
Energy Technologies: heliostatic photovoltaic panels

The sun is the origin of all life and energy on our planet. It has spawned myths, awe, and wonder throughout history and defines every day and every year of every person on our planet.

Celebrating the Sun is an art installation that connects us to the sun by reflecting its movements through the sky. Visitors can experience the slow movements and changing geometry of the installation with slow changes during the day and subtle adjustments during the year.

The installation consists of a large structural arch along the length of which moves a solar panel trolley, driven by an electric engine and powered by the solar panel itself. The movement of the trolley is a three-dimensional representation of the sun’s path across the sky over the course of a day. Tension cables tilt the entire arch up or down slightly each day to maintain the seasonal rhythm and match the height of the sun in the sky. All electric components and mechanisms are hidden inside the arch or in installations on the ground, achieving a clean and elegant expression.

The arch has a radius of 30 meters, making it clearly visible on the other side of the water. It will reach its highest angle of 57.71° on June 21. From there, it will slowly lower itself to 10.96° on December 21.

The arch and its solar panel are fitted with LED lights to mark the times and days related to the sun and the seasons.

The area surrounding the installation is used for urban gardening. Horticulturalists will be assisted in their seasonal planning with daily reference to the angle of the artwork—a solar clock of sorts.

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